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Sunday, December 23, 2012

Java Vaadin controls - ControlHelper getParent()

Vaadin controls, just like every other UI, creates a child-parent tree. This class helps to retrieve parent of a specified type. getParent() is extremely useful when invoked deep withing the tree structure to e.g. retrieve the main tab control and close it.

 * The purpose of this class is to help with the management of Vaadin controls child-parent tree.
public class ControlHelper {

    private static final int _MAXIMUM_PARENT_ITERATION_COUNT = 100;

     * Get parent of the control which has a specified type.
     * @param cls type of the control to return
     * @param control origin control (where to start traversing the tree)
     * @param <T>
     * @return
    public static <T extends AbstractComponent> T getParent(Class<T> cls, AbstractComponent control)
       if (control == null)
           return null;

        AbstractComponent parent = control;

       for (int i = 0; i < _MAXIMUM_PARENT_ITERATION_COUNT; i++)
           if (parent.getParent() == null)
               return null;

           //Return parent of the desired class type
           if (parent.getParent().getClass().isAssignableFrom(cls))
               return (T) parent.getParent();

           parent = (AbstractComponent) parent.getParent();

       return null;

Friday, November 23, 2012

Volvo C30 1.6D 2009 Momentum - Remove overhead console

I came up with the idea of replacing stock courtesy lightning bulbs with 501 LED Extreme Power 1.5W in my Volvo C30. The problem was that I thought it would take about 30 minutes and it took much longer than that. Actually it takes about 1.5 hours if you know what you're doing - luckily with this little tutorial you'll know exactly what to do.

Removing the overhead console from the headliner
To remove the overhead console from the headliner just pull the console FIRMLY downward. The Volvo manual DOES not specify how to do this (only says that a trained Volvo technician can do it) and VIDA only says to pull the console downward. I'll attach some pictures to show you how it's done - I didn't want to break my new ride so I hesitated whether to change the courtesy lightning on my own.
If the console has never been removed you NEED to apply some force to remove it. Don't worry about breaking the console - this should not happen.

The transparent plastic cover can be removed by teasing it out with a screwdriver.

After the console has been removed you should see the plastic framework in the roof with ONLY one connector and a few latches. I have marked the connector and one of the latches in the picture.

The console looks like the one in the fourth picture. The problem you'll have with it is that is HAS CUSTOM VOLVO bulb holders. So you need to either buy these from a certified Volvo shop, buy these online on ebay OR do some soldering yourself. I had no time to wait for the bulbs to arrive in a package so I chose the latter option.

Soldering out old bulbs and soldering the new LED lightning in

To remove holder from the console just twist it out. You'll not be able to remove the bulb from the holder easily, however. You need to somehow break the bulb's wires to pull it out.

The rest of the soldering process includes pulling out LED bulbs from their holders and putting them into the old VOLVO's holders, soldering the LED's wires to the old Volvo's metal connectors and putting the holders again into the console.

I leave the decision as whether to buy the holders from ebay or customize them yourself to you.

Tuesday, November 20, 2012

Import postgresql dump file on windows

Importing dump file from pgAdmin III's "restore" option is not intuitive. It can be done easily from console, however. Just call psql from postgres bin directory located in your installation folder.

c:\Program Files\PostgreSQL\9.1\bin\psql --username=your_username --file=your_dump_file.txt --dbname=your_database

Wednesday, October 3, 2012

C#/.NET Get NHibernate session information/database type/capabilities

Before changing the database structure (adding/removing columns or adding/removing comments to certain columns) you need to know which operations are allowed on a specific database type. This can be retrieved as follows:

var dialect = (Dialect)HibernateTemplate.Execute(del => del.GetSessionImplementation().Factory.Dialect;

Commenting capability (which is impossible in SQLite) can be read from:


Monday, September 17, 2012

NUnit AutoFixture unable to create an instance from IList

I encountered a problem with creating fake fixture objects in .NET tests for classes which contant a property with IList<T> (instead plain List<T>).

Suppose you have:

public class A
public IList<B> {
get { return list; }
set { list = value; }
private IList<B> list;

and you want to create a fake object like this:

var fake = new Fixture().Build<A>();

You'll get an error:
"AutoFixture was unable to create an instance from System.Collections.Generic.IList`1[A], most likely because it has no public constructor, is an abstract or non-public type."

What you need to do is tell AutoFixture what to use when it encounters an IList inferface:
(when there is an IList create a new List of some type):

var fixture = new Fixture();

Thursday, September 13, 2012

log4net nhibernate stop logging to console

After using log4net and nhibernate in one project I wanted to log sql commands in a separate file. I didn't want these sql commands to appear on console either. My castle implementation of nhibernate logged either all to console and separate file or nothing.
That's the configuration I used to stop nhibenrate from logging to console and force it to log to a separate file:


The important part is to use a filter inside a ConsoleAppender:

<filter type="log4net.Filter.LoggerMatchFilter">
<LoggerToMatch value="NHibernate"/>
<acceptOnMatch value="false"/>

Tuesday, September 11, 2012

log4net quickstart; log4net FileAppender not working in ConsoleApplication

To quickly set up log4net logging in you application open you app.config file:

Add a section for log4net:

    <section name="log4net" type="log4net.Config.Log4NetConfigurationSectionHandler,Log4net" requirePermission="false"/>

then add the section itself:

      <level value="ALL" />
      <appender-ref ref="ConsoleAppender" />
      <appender-ref ref="RollingLogFileAppender" />
    <appender name="ConsoleAppender" type="log4net.Appender.ConsoleAppender">
      <layout type="log4net.Layout.PatternLayout">
        <conversionPattern value="%date{HH:mm:ss,fff} - %message%newline" />
    <appender name="RollingLogFileAppender" type="log4net.Appender.RollingFileAppender">
      <file value="c:\a\xx.txt" />
      <appendToFile value="true" />
      <rollingStyle value="Size" />
      <maxSizeRollBackups value="10" />
      <maximumFileSize value="500MB" />
      <staticLogFileName value="true" />
      <layout type="log4net.Layout.PatternLayout">
        <conversionPattern value="%-5p %d %5rms %-22.22c{1} %-18.18M - %m%n" />

In your code do the following:

ILog logger = LogManager.GetLogger(typeof(Program));


Do not use: BasicConfigurator.Configure(); as it does not work with this example.
Normally you'd declare a private variable for logging:

private static readonly ILog logger = LogManager.GetLogger(typeof (Program));

Sunday, July 15, 2012

Midnight Commander how to compress a file/directory; Make a tar archive with midnight commander

To compress a file in Midnight Commader (e.g. to make a tar.gz archive) navigate to the directory you want to pack and press 'F2'. This will bring up the 'User menu'. Choose the option 'Compress the current subdirectory'. This will compress the WHOLE directory you're currently in - not the highlighted directory.

Tuesday, July 10, 2012

Silverlight set cell focus in DataGrid; Silverlight DataGrid set cell focus

This can be done by adding a behaviour to DataGrid like so:

<Behaviors:BrowserSelectedDataGridRowSelectsCellInSpecificRow ColumnNumber="1"/>

where ColumnNumber specifies the column number to focus.

void DataGridSelectionChanged(object sender, SelectionChangedEventArgs e)
if (AssociatedObject.SelectedItem == null)
//AssociatedObject.ScrollIntoView(item, (DataGridColumn)Target.Columns[ColumnIndexForEdit]);
AssociatedObject.CurrentColumn = AssociatedObject.Columns[ColumnNumber];

Monday, July 9, 2012

Install Drupal 7.14 on Ubuntu 12.04

Download drupal archive from the site and copy it to the root of your www directory
(on Ubuntu that is: /var/www  for apache2).

Unpack the drupal archive:
tar -zxvf drupal-7.14.tar.gz

Change the name to drupal (or any other):
mv drupal-7.14 drupal

Make sure ALL the files are owned by the www-data user (Apache2 user):
chown -R www-data:www-data ./drupal

Make sure you have the following packages installed:
php5-gd, libapache2-mod-php5, php5-pgsql (if you use postresql with drupal)

apt-get install php5-gd
(use apt-get, because aptitude uninstalls libapache2-mod-php5)
aptitude install libapache2-mod-php5
apt-get install php5-pgsql

Open the page (installation script from the browser):

That's about it.

Sunday, July 8, 2012

Configure Apache to host Tomcat 7 on Ubuntu

If you don't have tomcat7 installed run:
aptitude install tomcat7

Configure Tomcat

Edit /var/lib/tomcat7/conf/server.xml
Uncomment the line:
<Connector port="8009" protocol="AJP/1.3" redirectPort="8443" />
to tell Tomcat to use connector protocol on port 8009 for connection with Apache.

Restart tomcat:
/etc/init.d/tomcat7 restart

Check whether the connector is working with:
netstat -ln | grep :8009

Configure Apache

Install module for apache which will be used to connect to Tomcat:
apt-get install libapache2-mod-jk

Edit /etc/apache2/sites-available/default
and add JkMountCopy On in the <VirtualHost *:80> section

DocumentRoot  /var/www
JkMountCopy   On

Edit /etc/apache2/mods-enabled/jk.conf

<IfModule jk_module>
    JkWorkersFile /etc/libapache2-mod-jk/
    JkLogFile /var/log/apache2/mod_jk.log
    JkLogLevel info
    JkShmFile /var/log/apache2/jk-runtime-status
    JkLogStampFormat "[%a %b %d %H:%M:%S %Y] "
    JkMount /YouApplicationName/* ajp13_worker
    JkMount /YouApplicationName ajp13_worker

the path should be accessible from Tomcat7 under the same application name as well. i.e:

This is because Apache hosts your tomcat7's specific path.

Host jsp application from Eclipse on Tomcat 7 server

We want to host an application developed in Eclipse with the use of jsp under tomcat7 server in Ubuntu.
Let's suppose you have already installed tomcat7 on Ubuntu 12.04. Then you'll have tomcat root directory under:


Create you own application directory:


We'll assuse this directory path to be $APP_ROOT. You need to have the following directory structure:

$APP_ROOT/WEB-INF/classes    -  this is where your *.class files need to be stored.
$APP_ROOT/WEB-INF/lib -  this is where you *.jar need to be stored.
(class files need to be stored in folders which correspond to their package names)

Create a Web application (Servlet context)
edit the file /etc/tomcat7/server.xml
and create a line:

<Engine [...]>
  <Host [...]>
    <Valve [...] />
    <Context path="/YourApplication" docBase="YourApplication" debug="0" reloadable="true" />

and restart the tomcat server.
Your application should be server under:

You can redirect to your application from the root domain by editing the index.html under:


<title>Your Page Title</title>
<meta http-equiv="REFRESH" content="0;url="></HEAD>
<BODY> Optional page text here.</BODY>

Edit your /var/www/index.html  page as well.

Sunday, July 1, 2012

Postgresql 9.1 set default password on Ubuntu 12.04

Set default password for Postgresql 9.1 on Ubuntu 12.04:

Open a terminal

sudo -u postgres psql postgres
(run psql client as a linux user postgres and connect to postgres database)

ALTER USER postgres WITH PASSWORD '<newpassword>';
(change password for user postgres to <newpassword>)

Sunday, June 24, 2012

Git combine (merge) local commits into one

This tutorial is for those of you who used ToirtoiseGit which has the option of combining local commits before pushing them to the remote source and want to use that option in other Git clients.

To combine (merge) local commits into one before pushing them:

1. Switch to your local branch where your commits reside (actually it does NOT have to be a different branch, you can combine git commits on your local master as well)

2. I suppose you have already made 3 commits which you want to combine (merge) into one.

3. Reset (soft) as many commits down as you want to combine in your branch. When you execute a soft reset on a branch you end up having the combined result of the commits in your index ready to commit.

4. Commit the changes from your index - you end up having a single commit which a combined (merged) result of the previous three.

Screenshots were done using "SmartGit" from syntevo.

Saturday, June 23, 2012

git:// not found (setting up gitosis on ubuntu)

Following a tutorial on:
I found that does not work for me. Alternatively you can clone gitosis from:

git clone

or download it from here.

Sunday, June 17, 2012

Ubuntu Server 12.04 xrdp failed to load session 'ubuntu'

This error is caused by xrdp trying to run the classic Ubuntu desktop when it is not installed. This can happen when you install Ubuntu server without graphical environment and then install gnome-classic desktop only.

There are 2 files you need to worry about:


which should have:
. /etc/X11/Xsession
at the end.
(there is a space between '.' and '/etc')

and ~/.xsession 
(Don't worry if there isn't – it just means you haven't created it yet)
This file should have:
gnome-session --session=gnome-classic

restart xrdp with:
/etc/init.d/xrdp restart

Connect with

Thursday, May 17, 2012

Silverlight Force Binding update

In Silverlight TextBoxes update TextBox.Text property Binding when they loose focus. To force binding update do the following:

//Force Binding update from TextBox
BindingExpression binding = pageSizeTextBox.GetBindingExpression(TextBox.TextProperty);
if (null != binding)

Sunday, May 13, 2012

Can't uninstall an app in Android

There are some apps called 'Device administrators'. These cannot be uninstalled from application list. All the details of these applications are greyed out - they neither can be force stopped nor uninstalled. Uninstalling from Google Play Store does not work as well.
I encoutered an app like this in Android 4.0 ICS called "Screen Timeout" that lets you set the screen timeout not only to the standard values. Unfortunately this app was buggy and crashed on ICS.

To uninstall an app like this just:
Go to: home screen->Menu->Settings->Security->Select Device Administrators
Find the application.
Then uncheck it from device administrators.
From now on the app can be force closed and uninstalled from the application list without any problems.

Friday, April 27, 2012

Visual Studio 2010 regexp replace decimal delimiter

I had to replace decimal delimiter using Visual Studio 2010’s regular expression built-in mechanism – i.e. “ctrl+h” or ‘find and replace’ option.

The idea was to replace tags in XML:


I ended up using “tagged expressions” or “back references” in regexp which IS supported by VS built-in regex. To enter a back reference you simply use \1 (for the first back reference) and tag references by surrounding them with {} braces.

Find what:

Replace with:

Possible minus sign is the first back reference, digits before coma are the second reference and digits after coma are the third reference.

Thursday, April 19, 2012

Android 4.0 mount sdcard as drive

With Android 4.0 the option to mount you phone memory and external SD card as drives in Windows just disappeared.

Fortunately on a rooted Android ICS phone you can still do that by installing this application:


Saturday, April 7, 2012

Android ICS 4.0.3 Official XXLPQ for Samsung Galaxy S2 (For Odin)

This is the official Samsung release for Galaxy S2. Requires Odin to flash.
(Odin is included in the package).

Model: Samsung Galaxy S2 I9100
Android: ICS 4.0.3 XXLPQ  kernel 3.0.15

Files [ROM]:


1. Unpack
2. Run "Odin3 v1.83.exe"
3. Enter "Download mode" on your phone - downArrow, Home Key, and power button pressed simultaneously; Press upArrow to "continue"
4. [NOW - after running Odin] - connect the mobile via USB to the PC
5. Click PDA - select "I9100XXLPQ_I9100OXALPQ_I9100XXLPQ_HOME.tar.md5" file
6. DO NOT CHANGE ANY other settings
7. Click start

Your Odin should look like this:

Android 4.0.3 XXLPQ Screen timeout bug

I had an issue with my Android ICS 4.0.3 XXLPQ ROM.
The problem was that the screen did NOT turn itself off after a defined period of time so when
I received an sms or a call the screen remained lit till the time I actually came and turn it off manually.
It was annoying and drained the battery.

I turned out that it was a kernel problem. Updating the kernel to speedmod-kernel-s2 worked like a charm
and resolved my issue. It's supposed to be faster than the stock kernel but what I really cared about was
screen backlight timeout bug.


Working/Confirmed root for Samsung Galaxy S2 stock ROM on Android 4.0.3 version XXLPQ

This is a confirmed root solution (without changing the kernel or using ODIN) for Galaxy S2 ICS stock ROM. You just need to enter CWM (Clockworkmod recovery) and apply some updates.

Model: Samsung Galaxy S2 I9100
ROM: Android 4.0.3 stock ROM XXLPQ

1. download the file below
2. unpack it and copy the content to your SD card
3. enter CWM - upArrow, Home Key, and power button pressed simultaneously
4. search for "Install zip from sdcard"
5. choose ""
6. touch clockworkmod recovery will run
7. search for "Install zip from sdcard"
8. search for and apply the update


Guide for UNROOTING is available inside the package (in short: apply the update)

Tested on stock 4.0.3 LPH & LPQ rom.

Visual/Touch interface Clockworkmod recovery for Galaxy S2

Some of the new *.zip updates to Galaxy S2 need new Clockworkmod recovery and do not work on older (stock) version of this tool. 

To run touch clockworkmod recovery (not wiping your original version) simply:
1. download the file below
2. copy it to your SD card
3. enter CWM - upArrow, Home Key, and power button pressed simultaneously
4. search for "Install zip from sdcard" 
5. choose ""

The new touch Clockworkmod recovery will run.

CWM link:

Tuesday, March 13, 2012

Postgres using replace function; Postgres replacing phrase in an XML-typed column;

I wanted to replace column content '{ApplicationVersion}' with '{RegularMessage}' string. Postgres syntax seemed a little bit strange to me (because of the XMLPARSE) so I’m writing the solution here. As it turned I had to cast my content argument to text first as it was an XML-typed column - there is no automatic casting. If you forget to that the error pops up which suggests there is no replace function referenced but it actually means that there is no replace function with such arguments so you should cast your arguments:

ERROR: function replace(xml, unknown, unknown) does not exist

update message
set content = XMLPARSE(
DOCUMENT replace(text(content),'{ApplicationVersion}','{RegularMessage}')
where type = 'RegularMessage';

where content is the xml-typed column.

XMLPARSE can have DOCUMENT or CONTENT as arguments and you need to write one of the two keywords before the actual column name:

XMLPARSE (DOCUMENT '<?xml version="1.0"?><book><title>Manual</title></book>');
XMLPARSE (CONTENT 'abc<foo>bar</foo><bar>foo</bar>');

Thursday, March 1, 2012

GIT good practices; What to remember when coming from SVN; SVN to GIT tutorial

When working with a distributed repository system one needs to remember that it is slightly different from SVN and CVS repositories. I will put most aspects in points for easy remembering.

  1. Your LOCAL commit time/order is remembered when pushing your changes. So if you commit changes on master and then try pulling and pushing it will create a nasty “divide and merge” track on master. It looks like this:

    To prevent this behavior always do REBASE instead of pull when syncing with the distributed repository.

    Rebase in TortoiseGit is available from rightClick->Git sync->Fetch&Rebase
  2. If possible work on your LOCAL branch. For example, when your main branch is called “master”, create a branch called “localMaster” and commit changes to this branch. When the time comes to push your changes you will switch to “master”, pull the changes. Then switch back to “localMaster”, rebase localMaster in position to master to include all the changes which have been made on master and resolve any conflicts. Then switch to “master”, merge master from “localMaster” to include changes from “localMaster” in “master”. In the end you just push your “master” branch.


GIT good practices – using “master” and “localMaster” branches.

  • You clone the repository from source. And create your “localMaster” branch. So you have: “origin/master”, “origin/HEAD”, “master” and “localMaster”.

  • commit changes to “localMaster” branch

  • Switch back to “master” branch and pull changes from repo

  • switch to “localMaster” and do a rebase with “master”. In this way all the changes which have been pulled to master will be reflected in “localMaster” branch

  • this is how it looks “as a pure concept” after the rebase. You need to resolve any conflicts that can occur during this process.

  • switch to “master” branch and merge changes from “localMaster” to reflect commits made in “localMaster” to “master” branch

  • now that you have merged “master” and “localMaster” you can switch to “master” and push your changes so that others can see your commits.

I hope this is helpful.

Wednesday, February 29, 2012

Silverlight animating PopupMenu–‘IsOpen’ property, translate transform and opacity

This sample shows how to animate System.Windows.Controls.Primitives.Popup ‘IsOpen’ property, its position and opacity.

To change the visual state from code behind use:

VisualStateManager.GoToState(this, "HiddenState", true);

VisualStateManager.GoToState(this, "VisibleState", true);

source code.

Thursday, February 9, 2012

Using StringFormat in Binding

I had a problem using string format for a simple task of just "following the string from Binding with a ‘:’ sign. This can accomplished with:

Content="{Binding a,Source={StaticResource b}, StringFormat='{}{0}:'}"

Don’t forget the ‘’ signs.

Silverlight set Binding to property from code-behind or ViewModel

There is a static class BindingOperations which has a method called SetBinding().

BindingOperations.SetBinding(targetObject, TargetObjectClass.AttachableProperty, new Binding());


targetObject – is the instance of the object we bind to
TargetObjectClass.AttachableProperty – is the static reference to the propety we want to bind from
new Binding() – is the Binding with the Path and Source properties appropriately set.

Sample usage is:

BindingOperations.SetBinding(observableResources,ObservableResources.CurrentCultureProperty, new Binding() { Path = new PropertyPath("CurrentCulture"), Source = LanguageManager, Mode = BindingMode.TwoWay});

You can also use:

targetObject.SetBinding(TargetObjectClass.AttachableProperty, new Binding());

Friday, February 3, 2012

Silverlight sdk:DataGrid Column Header DataBinding; How to set DataBinding in Column Header in Silverlight

There is a problem with setting DataBinding as a Header in Column (e.g. DataGridTextColumn) from Silverlight Client SDK. Unfortunately Header is not a dependency property, do binding to it will result in converting DataBinding to string (calling its ToString() method).


To overcome the problem create a helper with a Dependency property (e.g. HeaderBinding). Change to HeaderBinding binding should set the real Header string.


<sdk:DataGridTextColumn Controls:DataGridColumnHelper.HeaderBinding="{Binding Something” />



public static class DataGridColumnHelper
    public static readonly DependencyProperty HeaderBindingProperty = DependencyProperty.RegisterAttached(
        new PropertyMetadata(null, DataGridColumnHelper.HeaderBinding_PropertyChanged));

    public static object GetHeaderBinding(DependencyObject source)
        return (object)source.GetValue(DataGridColumnHelper.HeaderBindingProperty);

    public static void SetHeaderBinding(DependencyObject target, object value)
        target.SetValue(DataGridColumnHelper.HeaderBindingProperty, value);

    private static void HeaderBinding_PropertyChanged(DependencyObject d, DependencyPropertyChangedEventArgs e)
        DataGridColumn column = d as DataGridColumn;
        if (column == null) { return; }
        column.Header = e.NewValue;

Monday, January 23, 2012

.NET C# Jasper Server SOAP Web Services using Microsoft.Web.Services2.dll

I had some problems connecting to Jasper server using SOAP web services and the standard library System.Web.Services.dll.

The solution uses basic connectivity, the runReport() method and Microsoft.Web.Services2.dll from “Web Services Enhancements 2.0 for Microsoft .NET Framework”. You can download the library here.

You need path to reference it Visual Studio:

C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft WSE\v2.0\Microsoft.Web.Services2.dll

Whole needed source is available here.

var jasperService = new JasperService("http://localhost:8088/jasperserver/services/repository");
var credentials = new NetworkCredential("perspectiv", "perspectiv");
jasperService.Credentials = credentials;

string requestXML = "[.....]";
var attachments = jasperService.ResponseSoapContext.Attachments;
if (attachments.Count > 0)
    var atach = attachments[0];
    var atachStream = atach.Stream;
    using (var fileStream = File.Create("C:\\test\\test.pdf"))

Microsoft.Web.Services2 401 Unauthorized

If you encountered this error using Web.Services2 from Microsoft just try:

var service = new JasperService("http://localhost:8088/jasperserver/services/repository");
var cred = new NetworkCredential("someUser", "somePass");
service.Credentials = cred;

If this does not work for you try:

SoapContext requestContext = service.RequestSoapContext;
UsernameToken userToken =
    new UsernameToken("someUser", "somePass",
requestContext.Security.Timestamp.TtlInSeconds = 86400;

Wednesday, January 11, 2012

Android delete national characters from SMS by default; Android send sms without polish characters

If you want to send sms without national characters (in other words delete polish or other weird characters from your sms) and save some money on sms bills try this on Android:

If you have Samsung Galaxy S2 (maybe some other Samsung devices as well):
- go to: SMS messages –> Settings –> Input mode –> GSM alphabet
(choose the option GSM alphabet instead of Unicode one and your smses will be sent without national characters)

If you have other devices:
- install “GO SMS Pro” from Market.

Gosms - setting – advanced settings – settings for sending - switch on national setting

This application has the option called:

“Localization support for accented chars: by enabling Czech, Polish and French SMS mode “ which will delete your national characters from smses in Android.

Tuesday, January 10, 2012

C# Using reflection to create an instance of a specific type; convert string to a specific type;

The idea behind the post is to convert a string such as: “System.Int32” to an instance of a specific type.
To create an instance of a compiled custom class in the assembly:


To create an instance of a built-in type e.g. “System.Int32” :